Does censorship send you blind?

In a conscious society, what we consume is under constant question. The internet has turned into a place where freedom of expression can be determined worthy or not. This determination is ultimately decided by the government; which can choose how much power they have over their citizens, and the material they choose to display. How did the freedom of internet use turn into a regulated sphere of censorship and laws?


Taking it too far? China’s control over their citizens.

Online censorship laws in China focus largely on the protection of their ruling Communist Party. They restrict any content that questions or possibly poses a threat to the government. Any examination of political, religious, or cultural information regarding the party is under constant surveillance. This is applicable to free speech, and state and foreign media. This includes print form and online. The extensive censoring of the Internet often goes unnoticed by Chinese citizens. They are unaware that the government is explicitly obstructing access to certain websites. The influence of the authorities is made invisible, one way is by identifying restrictions as technical issues. Lu Wei (commonly referred to as ‘China’s Internet Czar’), previously the head of the General Office of the Central Leading Group for Internet Security and Informatization, confidently expressed:

“This path is the choice of history, and the choice of the people, and we walk the path ever more firmly and full of confidence”1

Is this choice of the people the same community that denies their own freedom of speech? It would be easy to have confidence in one’s own power.

Where the idea of one’s individual freedom is not compatible with a communist ideology, the opinions of the Chinese community are suppressed. The curious voices that wish to share a perspective through blogging websites are quickly removed by the government; this is when citizens become aware of the political control. Popular social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, and Gmail, are all inaccessible. However, these foreign forms of social media are often replaced by China’s own heavily censored versions. These efforts are all apart of the Golden Shield Project , more specifically, the Great Firewall of China. The laws under the project mainly involve foreign websites, apps, social media, emails, instant messaging, and other online resources deemed inappropriate or offensive by authorities. These are described as ranging from depictions of violence and pornography, to more politically sensitive matters. These issues are ones that encourage democracy or portray the Communist Party in a negative or undermining manner. Even terms like: democracy, revolt, or student strike are allegedly blocked.

It is agreed among Chinese Internet communities that when there is confusion on the Internet, it can harm social stability. Although, a study conducted by Pew Internet in collaboration with American Life Project examined that 85% of Chinese citizens surveyed think that the government should be responsible for managing the Internet. It’s in a population’s interest to feel safe under cyber-security. Yet, when protection is dependant upon micromanagement, those affected start to feel suffocated by supremacy. Though it is evident that the attitudes of their communist system bleeds into Internet regulations, perhaps these conditions are just expected. It can be difficult to determine if Internet users would prefer a change in censorship laws.  The ideologies of the regime are debatable; yet individual freedom for any community has long been a desirable circumstance.

Even so, when the eye of Big Brother is watching, you have their full attention.

“The Internet, is as much a tool for control, surveillance, and commercial considerations as it is for empowerment.” – Hu Xijin 2


The wonder down under.

While China is primarily focused on the protection of their own government, Australia is more concerned with the safety and well-being of their citizens. This difference between national security in regards to Internet censorship displays an emphasised comparison between two economically developed. Australia’s censorship with Internet regulation is more lenient in terms of consumer’s freedom. This is due to Australia being a democratic government. The values that constitute a democracy are described as having:

  • freedom of election and being elected;
  • freedom of assembly and political participation;
  • freedom of speech, expression and religious belief;
  • rule of law; and
  • other basic human rights.                                                             “

In contrast, communism denies these ideologies.

This goes hand-in-hand with the tolerance and legal allowance of certain censorships. Australia however, is a Commonwealth, therefore, the responsibility for censorship laws are divided between each state and federal government. The Australian Broadcasting Authority (ABA) is responsible for the administration of the internet censorship regime. The Australian Communication and Media Authority (ACMA) have the power to restrict material that is on the internet. For example, if an Australian site was displaying content that would be classified as R18+ or X18+, and the site did not have an adult content verification system, the material could be refused classification.


Jillian C.York, December 24 2016, Censorship on Social Media: 2016 in Review Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Isabel Thottam, September 29 2016, Censorship is Killing the Spirit of Social Media Date Accessed: 8/11/17

TECH, 26 September 2016, Social media and censorship in China: how is it different to the West? Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Kim Jackson, Online only issued 19 October 2001, Censorship and Classification in Australia Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Beina Xu and Eleanor Albert, February 17 2017, Media Censorship in China Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Simon Denyer, May 23 2016, China’s scary lesson to the world: Censoring the Internet works Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Jane Perlez and Paul Mozur, June 29 2016, Lu Wei, China’s Internet Czar, Will Step Down From Post Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Samuel Wade, May 25 2016, China’s “New Normal” Internet Control: Does it Work? Date Accessed: 8/11/17 (1)

Mihai Andrei, June 1 2016, ‘Tank Man’: The iconic image that China doesn’t want you to see Date Accessed: 8/11/17

Randy James, March 18 2009, Chinese Internet Censorship,8599,1885961,00.html Date Accessed: 8/11/17


Robert H. Jackson, 31 March 2006, Internet Censorship Laws in Australia Date Accessed: 8/11/17


The Spread of Fake News

How can we trust social media if everything is Fake News?

The dramatic increase of Fake News over the past two years has many people wondering, who and what should I trust? It seems many political influencers have their own opinion on what is or isn’t fake news whether it is detrimental to their status or goes against their beliefs.

Donald Trump v The Mainstream Media:

The words ‘Fake News’ was coined by the elect president of the United States Donald Trump in the leading up to the 2016 US election. By definition, Fake News is “false news stories, often of a sensational nature, created to be widely shared online for the purpose of generating ad revenue via web traffic or discrediting a public figure, political movement, company, etc.” His controversial ideas had led to numerous leftist articles in which Mr. Trump had taken it upon himself to address the “Fake news”.


In what Mr. Trump’s declared as his enemies, or rather “enemies of the American People” include; The New York Times, NBC, ABC, CBS, CNN, Buzzfeed etc, these sources are referred to as the leftist news. In terms of friends, the conservative news sources include; Fox news, Info-wars, The Blaze, and The Washington Times in which they share positive opinions about Mr. Trump. The negative impact of these fake news stories are the large masses and little time they are created in. However, it is reasonably easy to detect the mockery and sarcastic tone of fake news articles too many times has one been attracted to view news with such outrageous clickbait titles. In late 2016 Facebook introduced a system where users could rate a news article to improve the situation on fake and misleading titles, although nothing has been done to alter and prevent the articles from appearing in our feed. Additionally, Google and Facebook have been under fire for promoting fake news about the Las Vegas shooting displaying articles of conservatives accusing the shooter as being a liberal. The manipulative use of political propaganda exhibits the extremely damaging and negative side of fake news.

“America’s Finest News source” Trolling:

Trolling is a large segment of fake news in which provides satirical stories for the purpose of entertainment and discussion. is one of the largest fake news sites on the internet which provides comedic and outrageous headlines such as “Toddler Scientists Finally Determine Number of Peas That Fit into Ear Canal” and “Doctors Discover Purpose of Appendix Is to Contain Human Soul” These ridiculous and humorous articles provide a lighter and less serious side which is the best example for the better uses of fake news.


List of fake news sites and articles:

The Onion:


“Toddler Scientist Finally Determine Number of Peas That Fit into Ear Canal”:

“Doctors Discover Purpose of Appendix is to Contain Human Soul”:

Avoiding the trap:

Whether you want to fuel your confirmation bias and explore the side which pleases you the most it is important to avoid extreme bent sources. Identifying reputable sources can be difficult as every source has a personal bias but there are other ways to check the facts;

  • Cited material and statistics: Identify the cited material from the article (Found at the bottom of most articles) and check whether the sourced information was accessed from a trusted and reputable site.
  • University Studies and Government sites: It can be difficult to misjudge or be provided misleading information from official sites, claiming facts from university studies and government sites are the best sources to quote from.
  • Click bait: The first major red flag is the title. Extreme titles and something that seems too good to be true probably is.
  • Extreme personal opinions: The second major red flag is through the style and attitude of the author. Opinions add personality to text but extreme ranting and toxic views are not something to be taken away as factual information.
  • Fake News cites: Make yourself aware of the purposefully fake news sites so you’re not fooled.

Research is the key for the validity of your understanding whether it’s about politics or everyday news, it’s good to make a conversation about these issues facing social media but having an open mind doesn’t hurt either.

By Isabel Stevens-Yager


References: (2017). LibGuides: Real vs. Fake News: Detecting lies, hoaxes and clickbait: Avoiding Fake News. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Nov. 2017].

Levin, S. (2017). Facebook and Google promote politicized fake news about Las Vegas shooter. [online] the Guardian. Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017].

Robertson, A. (2016). Facebook is asking users to judge the truthfulness of news headlines. [online] The Verge. Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017].

Robson, D. (2017). How to avoid falling for lies and fake news. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Nov. 2017].

Seriously Simple Marketing. (2017). Click Bait Headlines — The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly. [online] Available at: [Accessed 5 Nov. 2017].

Stecula, D. (2017). The real consequences of fake news. [online] The Conversation. Available at: [Accessed 6 Nov. 2017].

The Straits Times. (2017). The negative impact of fake news. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017]. (2017). The Onion. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Nov. 2017].







How social media affects Sports

Social media has become a major aspect in sports all around the world. Major sporting clubs in basketball, soccer, American football, rugby e.t.c, use there social media platforms to advertise their brands, showcase their players and provide updates on their teams and organisations. So they realistically use their platforms positively and not negatively. Even the pro athletes themselves must have at least a platform on  Social media. For a fact social media does have positive and negative impacts on a professional athletes performances.


Business and promotion

Social media is a great way for athletes to gain more recognition in their particular sport, it also gives their clubs or organisations they work for more recognition. Major sporting brands such as Nike, Adidas, Puma and more sign shoe deals or endorsements with athletes with major following on social media, which exposes their brand wider and gains more recognition. For example the picture below shows how Adidas advertises their brand through sport and using elite athletes with a huge following on social media. The ad is about the 2018 FIFA World cup, which one of the worlds most recognizable sporting events and is showcased all over social media.




In 2013 it was recorded that 50% of tweets on on twitter were about sport, which gave social media users a most likely chance upon running across sports products or any given sports organisation. Depending on the particular event and it’s relevancy this topic trends on twitter which gives the organisation more fans and their profit.

Image result for trending barImage result for equal signImage result for dollar sign





Player interaction with fans

Players through personal accounts, can interact more with there fans and share the same love and passion for the sport. Lots of athletes after good performances or rather just after a competitive event will take to their social media platforms to thank their fans for their support during the game or after. Usually after a good performance they receive good feedback and will trend online depending on the athletes relevancy on social media i.e, Lebron James, Neymar jr, Leo messi, Usain Bolt, will all trend after a solid good performance in their particular sport. After the game some athletes give away there match jerseys to fans, which is good for there image and the organisation they are involved in. This good gesture can also be shown though their social platforms, were they give our signed shirts, shoes and different equipment to fans.

Image result for dele alli giving away his bootsImage result for steph curry signing shoes for fans


Image result for steph curry signing shoes

For this reason it is speculated that most of them don’t run their own platforms by themselves, to avoid backlash with fans, destroy their reputation and image and the organisation’s.

Negative impacts

   Affects athletes performances

After a lacklustre performance in an important game players receive threats from fans, telling them to leave their club or organisation. This decreases the players morale and affects his or her performances. Another reason is over hyping a young athlete who is playing his first games, most athletes get too excited and get compared to legends, but just after three to four games everyone just assumes he or she is terrible and won’t make it in the competition. Some players athletes react differently to this criticism, others find it as a morale booster while others find it difficult to cope with.


20-40 years ago when  Michael Jordan, Mara dona, Pele, were in there prime people liked sports a lot more. Because it didn’t allow them to see or know a lot about the athletes. Unfortunately, nowadays, it’s sort of a double-edged sword that both players and fans have to deal with, as the athlete gives all-access content to fans, but fans never asked for such a thing. It’s cool when athletes use social media appropriately by posting pics of themselves celebrating in the locker room with their teammates, but when it’s done wrong, fans become tired of their superstars because they know way too much about them.In other words, as much as social media can build players up, it can tear them down just as quickly and that’s sad.

athletes argue on social media

There are plenty of reasons for athletes to have beef with one another and the ones that matter are the ones that begin in the heat of battle during a game, not ones that happen because of social media. Yet, all too often, fans see instances where opposing players talk bad about each other because of something that was said on Twitter, causing a beef that, well, shouldn’t be taken too seriously because it’s dumb.



. Article title:The Impact of Social Media on Sports | Timothy BehanWebsite title:Sites.psu.eduURL:


Article title: The impact of social and digital media on sport | Nest
Website title: Nest



Article title: Positives and Negatives of Social media in Sports
Website title:


By Taonga

Anonymous Users

You know what. I’ve had enough, of anonymity. You are not part of the movement, you’re not in the game if you’re anonymous. You’re, totally. Fucking. Useless. You’re pissing in the wind.


Now, I understand that some people might have extreme views, and they don’t want to make that public because they might get fired. I still think that’s lame, but I get it. You’re the general administrator at McDonald’s, and you make 100k a year, you got a mortgage, you live in a new fancy development housing complex, fine. But that person then can’t be arrogant and insult other people and call them a pussy, and say “you need to stand up for what you believe in”, when you’re icon is like a space pirate and you’re name is ‘Warriorrrr’. DUDE, YOU’RE NOT A FUCKING WARRIOR. OK. That fictional nerd drawing that you’re using to represent yourself, you’re not even in the same universe as that guy. Let’s just pretend he is real OK, and there is a space pirate. He had to become an engineer, he had to fight to the death, ugh he lives in outta fucking space. That’s not an easy life. You, sit at home, on your computer, sipping cola, you wouldn’t die for anything, I don’t even think you would die for your family.


And every time I argue with these guys, which, by the way, is stupid and that’s on me, i’m just as dumb as them for wasting my time arguing with these fucking clowns, but I couldn’t resist this weekend. Their avatar is always a warrior, it’s some medieval guy with a giant sword, or some knight standing like that. Dude, knights fought to the death, their clothes weighed 70 kilos, you’re wearing sweatpants. Have you no shame, could you be less self aware. And these guys go “oh yeah well, anonymity is stupid?. It’s about the ideas”. You have 5 followers on twitter, no one’s hearing your fucking ideas. Then they’ll go “Oh thomas paine, he started the american revolution”. Yes. He did. His pamphlet ‘Common Sense’, was an integral piece of the puzzle, that separated America from Britain. HE ALSO DID A LOT OF SHIT AS THOMAS PAINE. Like raise money for the revolution, like be on the run his entire life, like fight the monarchy, FIGHT GEORGE WASHINGTON, as Thomas Paine. You’re not in the same universe as thomas paine, stop using the founding fathers as an example of you. You don’t exist, you’re anonymous.


It doesn’t count if you don’t put your fucking name on it.


Another thing they say is, the gamergate thing, Gawker lost over a million dollars, it was anonymous trolls, that is true. And I have to concede that gamergate was a victory against political correctness, it fractured the left, and made these Social Justice Warriors, sort of a weird anomaly, separating them from the mainstream liberals. And i think it made these mainstream liberals hate these, deluded humans. Yes. I’m sorry but there is something about making Gawker lose money, although I like, like it, I also like seeing a pedophile get the shit kicked out of them. There is still something ignoble about it. There is something not heroic about frantically harassing an advertiser until he just, cuts them off, because he doesn’t want to deal with your crazy fucking face.


I’m not that impressed.


So if you want to make a difference, be yourself, if you have crazy radical views, if you don’t think the holocaust happened, if you think blacks are inferior, you don’t have to vocalise that exactly that way. Keep it interrogative, at least bring it up, but get out there with your face our you don’t count, we need your numbers ok. I don’t care how radical you are, I WANT you to disagree with me, I want to get into a fight with you, and I want to lose, that’s what freedom of speech is about. It’s about people getting into arguments, and losing, it’s about fighting, about physical fights. NOT A PICTURE OF A DUDE WITH A SWORD FOR CRYING OUT LOUD.


We all need to band up if we are to go up against this censorship wall and knock it down.


Lenore Skenazy is a woman, who saw a couple getting arrested for letting their kids walk home from the park alone. Was her solution to not do that anymore? Was her solution to put her kids deeper into the basement, with more locks on the doors and hire more bodyguards, no. She said they can’t arrest us all, and she started a day called “Leave your kids at the park Day”. Her mentality being ‘lets all get out there, lets all leave our kids at the park, let’s all have our kids walk home. And then they’ll go, “shit we can’t fight them, there’s too many of them”. That’s what we have to do with free speech, you have an avatar that’s a space pirate and you are less brave than a nerdy housewife, Lenore Skenazy.


They can’t arrest us all, they can’t censor us all.



Skenazy, L. and Skenazy, L. (2017). I let my 9-year-old ride the subway alone. I got labeled the ‘world’s worst mom.’. [online] Washington Post. Available at:  [Accessed 12 Nov. 2017].

Breitbart. (2017). How #GamerGate Shattered Gawker’s Myth of Invincibility – Breitbart. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Nov. 2017].

Paine, T. (2017). Thomas Paine – American Revolution – [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Nov. 2017].


Social Media and Gaming

Gaming has been around for a very long time. The original ‘Pong’ arcade cabinet was first released in 1972, and the industry has only grown since then. In a short 45 years, games were upgraded from nothing more than a background distraction into something that would be difficult to imagine the modern world without. We have developed games that can process colour, we have developed games that can save our progress between uses, we have developed three-dimensional games, and we have even developed games that can connect to the internet to interact with other players.

Continue reading

Social Media and Social Connectiveness



Do you know and keep in touch with someone living interstate or overseas? And just how do you do this?

Imagine you have a loved one living overseas, which i’m sure many of you can relate to. And imagine if they or you needed to speak to each other and discuss a personal issue. Would you write a letter? A post card? Because if you did it would take months just to have a conversation.

Social media has allowed these conversations to occur instantly. it close the isolation gap in long distance relationships

This aspect of social media has a positive impact on lives

Claim – I don’t think my 22 year old sister and her 24 year old boyfriend would still be going out without social media

Reasons. My sister’s boyfriend was on a volleyball contract  in Sweden for 9 months last year and is now on a 10 month volleyball contract  in Finland since August this year and will stay until May next year. He has had 2 months in Australia in the last 2 years. My sister talks to him on facetime daily. This connectedness keeps them together as they share the highs and lows face to face even though separated for months. His mother is currently undergoing chemotherapy in Australia but he still gets to talk to her once a week on social media. All of this international connectedness would not be possible at an affordable price for young people without social Media

Article Image

“ Social media plays a big role in maintaining long distance romantic relationships. It is also the primary reason why these relationships are becoming a lot more common” according Big Think, Natalie Shoemaker.

(Shoemaker, 2017)

Research released from “cyberpsychology, behaviour and social network” also stated that “social media provides social and public contexts in each others lives that would otherwise be limited.”

(, 2017)

This creates a sense of closeness between both members in the relationship. This is why my sister and boyfriend can maintain their long distance relationship. And way many other long distance relationships can first be established and maintained.
 Claim – I don’t think my 83 year old grandmother would feel as connected to her sister in Wales without social Media

Reasons. My 83 year old Grandmother has one surviving relative besides her husband and children. She lives on the other side of the world in Wales. She is 88 years old and has been desperately ill of late. My grandmother feels close to her still and can provide advice and support cheaply with the aid of social media. Without it, they would both feel isolated from each other.

Again, social media is used as a device to create a sense of cohesion to those who are geographically distanced. I personally have seen my own grandmother’s relationship develop with her sister living in Wales over the past few years due to the more frequent interaction that now occurs.

I’ve noticed how they exchange personal and daily context about their lives. Whenever she speaks of her sister, she now speaks with a tone of glee and satisfaction which she previously wouldn’t have due to a lack of closeness and connection. Thus there was a feeling of isolation without their frequent interaction that social media provides.

Claim – My other grandmother lives in Victoria and has 8 grandchildren and 2 great grandchildren. She would feel more isolated without social media

Reasons. None of her grandchildren or great grand children live closer than 2 hours away. My grandmother keeps in touch regularly with most of us through social media. This reduces her feeling of isolation and helps her stay in touch with all the happenings of many family groups. Social Media has reduced her feelings of isolation and separation. This is positive

In another article written by Lindsay Burgess from Hellogiggles, Burgess discusses how her partner and herself “use snapchat (a form of social media) to share the everyday moments they used to have in common.   

The cohesion that social media creates is beneficial for all types of relationships.


References (2017). The Use of Social Networking Sites for Relationship Maintenance in Long-Distance and Geographically Close Romantic Relationships | Abstract. [online] Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2017].

Shoemaker, N. (2017). Social Media Plays a Big Role in Long-Distance Relationships. [online] Big Think. Available at: [Accessed 10 Nov. 2017]. | why social media matters so much in my long distance relationship| Linsday Burgess | accessed on 10/11/2017

Trolling in Games

If I was to ask you a simple question that was (Are you a troll?) how would you reply? Nowadays gaming has become one of the biggest and most impressive forms of entertainment for adults, teenagers and children of all ages as it is a way for people to just relax or have fun in multiplayer games such as Counter strike Global Offensive (CS-GO), League Of Legends (LOL). But most people are not aware that there are dangers in multiplayer games and they are commonly known as trolling or simply put as cyber bullying. Firstly what is cyber bullying?, cyber bulling is a form of harassment done through electronic devices by ether social media or just plain emailing. But most people don’t know that multiplayer games is the type of category where teenagers or gamers can get bullied most gamers tend to call this TROLLING. A group of scientist deiced to do a research on the difference between social media bullying and multiplayer games, it was shown that 43% of teens aged 13-17 have reported an experience where they were cyber bullied, but for video game players, that percentage could be significantly higher. In fact, 63% of female gamers have been sexually harassed such as being asked to perform “virtual sex behaviours” in return for in game currencies. But most of the reasons why people Troll online is because they either had a bad day or they just feel like harassing someone who beat them in a game or match, when one of those opponents loses that is  when they decide to send unnecessary messages where they are threatening the victims life or threatening their family. Most victims don’t see this as a major problem, this means that they want bother with telling an adult whats happening. What they don’t really know is that it can escalate very quickly.

Now lets talk about me and my experiences of TROLLING. I’m gonna be really honest and say that I have never been Trolled before, but I have been the Troll. For me it was only a one type thing from then on I never did again. I’ve currently been playing a game called League of Legends (LOL) a fun MOBA to kill some time or just for fun, I never thought that I would end up Trolling one day but it just happened I was talking to a random person online whom I’ve never met face to face so i deiced to catfish him and pretend I was a girl. The only reason I did it was for the laughter and for fun but after a while I realised what I was doing was inappropriate because the person I was trolling wanted to give his number and wanted to chat him and hang out some time and that’s when I deiced to stop harassing him and making him think I was a female gamer so I had to tell him the truth obviously he would become angry at me but I’m glad he didn’t take it as a bad thing, right know we are good friends and still laugh about the messages we used to send to each other.

Girls (Egirls) get targeted a lot in games, this is because most gamers think of woman not playing games and that they are to perfect for it and that gaming is for boys. but most girls don’t care about who thinks what. For example a well known female gamer that goes of the name Pokimane on twitch gets sexually harassed a lot every time this live streamer stands up to get something she would always end up with these types of messages (THICC) which means she has a big ass or bum.


But there are some people out there who try their best to stop trolls from sending these types of messages or trash talking in a game about or to someone, one of my favourite you tuber who does this has gotten a lot of praise from parents and some game creators for standing up. He has recently uploaded videos called (African Rebel teaching kids lessons) (  The reason why I love this video is because this you tuber stands up to a troll who is talking crap someones mom, this you tuber demonstrates that its not OK to talk about other peoples parents online as it is disrespectful and it was also a funny video to enjoy.


In conclusion trolling happens everywhere but on social media it is well known as cyber bulling. Even though most people might think its not a big issue it can change to an even bigger problem very quickly, that is why it is important to tell a parent if you are being harassed on multiplayer games and that the game creators should find ways to prevent this from happening.



Cyber-bullying and video games

In-text: (Aaron, 2017)

Your Bibliography: Aaron, J. (2017). Cyber-bullying and video games. [online] VentureBeat. Available at: [Accessed 12 Nov. 2017].


In-text: (When Cyberbullying and Bullying Meet Gaming: A systemic Review of the Literature, 2015)

Your Bibliography: When Cyberbullying and Bullying Meet Gaming: A systemic Review of the Literature. (2015). Journal of Psychology & Psychotherapy, 05(04).


Internet chat in simulations: Taking BULLYING online

In-text: (Hull, 2008)

Your Bibliography: Hull, E. (2008). Internet chat in simulations: Taking BULLYING online. Simulation & Gaming, 39(2), pp.198-208.

Rooney Mawa